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The wealth and poverty of nations - Essay Example The treaty was signed in the mid-1990s, and is generally considered to be a big success. Treaty of Versailles This was the treaty that ended the First World War. It imposed the costs of the war on Germany. Some believe that the punitive nature of the treaty led to the Second World War. Hitler was able to exploit the negative effects of the treaty on Germans in order to come to power. The rest is history. Scramble for Africa This occurred at the end of the 1800s. At the time, much of Africa was undiscovered by Europeans. European nations wanted colonies and they sought to grab as much African land as they could. Sometimes this was done through negotiations and sometimes through violence. Great Depression This was a terrible time in world history. It occurred in 1929, when the stock market crashed. It led to widespread job losses around the world and rapid inflation. The problems caused by the Great Depression were only really resolved with the coming of World War II and the greater productivity engendered by this conflict. Landes' view of winners and loser According to Landes, some countries have won the jackpot and others have not. So many factors effect the distribution of wealth and resources around the world. Some of these are based on climate. Others on cultural issues.